please help!!

hello everyone! i wanted to know if enyone can help me with this: i am learning pascal basics in school so i have one little problem with this:

i want to make programm where the 'x' value type user, and then the sum is calculated, but i dont know how to make formula for this


so the formula is ((2x-1)/2^x); for example: user types that x is 3;
then the programm puts 3 in x place; then 2; and then 1 and then all this sum together like this example where x is 3
((6-1)/8) + ((4-1)/4) + ((2-1)/2) = ...

so i want to create summing like this, i think it is something related with cycles, but i dont know for sure, so if anyone can help me i'll be grateful :)


  • What you are trying to do is called recurrsion where you loop calling the same function until the variable reaches a set point.
  • It's called iteration, not recursion.

  • ok, thanks, i wll try to find information about iteration, how to use it; but for now i have got this far:

    program number;
    var i,x,s:integer;
    writeln('type number');
    for i:=1 to x do


    everything works luckily, but i dont know how to add 2^x where i have this underline, i even read that in pascal you cant do the multiplication involution, is that true?
  • [blue]: ... i even read that in pascal you cant do the
    : multiplication involution, is that true?
    It's been a long time since I've heard the word involution. ;-)

    The answer is yes and no. You can do involution but Pascal does not provide an operation for it the way Fortran and Basic do. You have to write your own routine, like below.
    program number ;

    [red]function power (x : real ; n : integer) : real ;
    raise a real number to an integer power
    product : real ;
    i : integer ;
    product := 1.0 ;
    for i := 1 to n do
    product := x * product ;
    power := product
    end ;[/red]

    i,x : integer ;
    s : real ;

    writeln('type number') ;
    readln(x) ;
    s := 0 ;
    for i := 1 to x do
    s := s + ((2*i-1) / [red]power(2,i))[/red] ;
    writeln ('sum:', s) ;
    BTW, you can't do this with integers. Try it. [b]s[/b] has to be real, otherwise the answer will always be zero. Do you know why?

  • i think that because integers are 5, 6, 99... but real is 88,99; 0,000003; 1,5 ... and when i am going to divide numbers i wont get integer, so i need real numbers

    and big thanks to you :) :* :D
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