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How Internet Works ???

Hi there everybody,
Whishing all a very very happy new year.

I am very confused about how internet really works. Is there anybody who can help me? Somebody Please help me. You can help me by providing some info about where I can get the answers of my questions or can answer them for me.

The questions are--

1) As far as I know, after typing an address like "www.abcd.com" the browser searches the the name server and gets the IP related to the address. So if that is true I can guess that after I register a domain for me the domain registration authority is actually giving me a IP against my address. But the question is, how the registration can assign me a IP because I think the IP depends on the host server's IP where I'll host my pages.

2) Again a host server can have only one IP address to attach its self with the internet. So as far as I understand, in this shituation the host server will be able to host only one site.

Please some body help me. I have some more silly questions like these. I m a student of commerce background, but I've read some books on internet. But in none of them I could find the answers of these questions.

_____________________________________________________________________________
Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->

Comments

  • CyGuyCyGuy Posts: 312Member
    : Hi there everybody,
    : Whishing all a very very happy new year.
    :
    : I am very confused about how internet really works. Is there anybody who can help me? Somebody Please help me. You can help me by providing some info about where I can get the answers of my questions or can answer them for me.
    :
    : The questions are--
    :
    : 1) As far as I know, after typing an address like "www.abcd.com" the browser searches the the name server and gets the IP related to the address. So if that is true I can guess that after I register a domain for me the domain registration authority is actually giving me a IP against my address. But the question is, how the registration can assign me a IP because I think the IP depends on the host server's IP where I'll host my pages.
    :
    : 2) Again a host server can have only one IP address to attach its self with the internet. So as far as I understand, in this shituation the host server will be able to host only one site.
    :
    : Please some body help me. I have some more silly questions like these. I m a student of commerce background, but I've read some books on internet. But in none of them I could find the answers of these questions.
    :
    : _____________________________________________________________________________
    : Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->
    :
    1. you will specify the address/s of you Fully Qualified Domain Name when you register. along with any mirror sites.
    2. a good router/bridge will channel any IP calls to your servers MAC
  • ranainnetranainnet Posts: 54Member
    Thank You Very Much CyGuy for replying and trying to help me.

    But it would be very help if you tell me a bit detailse about the topic. What I actually wanna know is what happends after typing an URL in the browser and pressing enter to load the web page.

    To search the answer I've gone through many books. All of the books told that the URL I m typing is not the real address but it represents an unique IP address for the site, eg. if I type "http://www.yahoo.com" then it resembles may be "221.124.245.120" and if I type the IP in the browser then also the web page will appear.

    From the books I've come to know that the text URL is for human to make it yasier to remember. From books I've also come to know that after typing the text URL in the browser the browser will contact a DNS servre to find out the IP related to the text URL and after getting the IP it will contact with the web server and lode the page for the server.

    After all this a question appeared in my mind. If a text URL resembles a dedicated IP that represents the page or text URL, what happends when someone resisters a text URL under a certain domain eg. "www.abcd.com"

    1) Does resistering an text URL means that the resistering authority like "internic.com" is assigning both the text URL and a unique IP for the text URL "www.abcd.com" to me?

    If yes then another question arrives in my mind,

    2) How can "internic" assign a unique IP for my text URL? IP's are for PCs that are connected to the net or connected in a network. So IP address of a site should be the IP address of the Web server where I shall host my site. And a web server certainly does not host a single site. So the IP address of the Web server should be the IP address that refers to all the web sites that are hosted in it.

    So Please would you explain me what really happens. You can also help me by refering to some web site form where I might get some answer.

    Thak you very much form the deep of my heart for reading this very large message.

    _____________________________________________________________________________
    Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->

  • CyGuyCyGuy Posts: 312Member
    I will try to be tactfull here, I sympethize with your plight. Finding a good book is often as difficult as finding a good web tutorial, and when you do find what you are looking for it will also give rise to further questions.

    Take for examle your primary question: How are the IP address and FQDN related. If you know Object Oriented Programming, the answer would be simple. To explain this idea,(you) imagine a house. It has an address, and other properties, like the number of rooms and the foundation it sits on. Furthermore, there are people that live there. If you write a person a letter, you must know more than thier name. You have to find a means to establish thier address. That is where the DNS comes into play. Should you have a label with thier address already on it, there is no need. This is the same as typing the IP address directly into the browser, bypassing the DNS completely.

    There is a database that holds the names and addresses of the millions of people that live in the United States of America. The US census, arguably but unmistakingly, were the first to use a computer commercialy to tally figures in the late 19th century. The company contracted to provide the technology later went on to become IBM. As you dive further into hosting a site, you will have more questions, and I am always here to help. You might also do a search on these topics: Static IP address, Internet Protocol, Transmission Control Protocol, Local Area Network, Media Access Control, Internet Service Provider...

    : Thank You Very Much CyGuy for replying and trying to help me.
    :
    : But it would be very help if you tell me a bit detailse about the topic. What I actually wanna know is what happends after typing an URL in the browser and pressing enter to load the web page.
    :
    : To search the answer I've gone through many books. All of the books told that the URL I m typing is not the real address but it represents an unique IP address for the site, eg. if I type "http://www.yahoo.com" then it resembles may be "221.124.245.120" and if I type the IP in the browser then also the web page will appear.
    :
    : From the books I've come to know that the text URL is for human to make it yasier to remember. From books I've also come to know that after typing the text URL in the browser the browser will contact a DNS servre to find out the IP related to the text URL and after getting the IP it will contact with the web server and lode the page for the server.
    :
    : After all this a question appeared in my mind. If a text URL resembles a dedicated IP that represents the page or text URL, what happends when someone resisters a text URL under a certain domain eg. "www.abcd.com"
    :
    : 1) Does resistering an text URL means that the resistering authority like "internic.com" is assigning both the text URL and a unique IP for the text URL "www.abcd.com" to me?
    :
    : If yes then another question arrives in my mind,
    :
    : 2) How can "internic" assign a unique IP for my text URL? IP's are for PCs that are connected to the net or connected in a network. So IP address of a site should be the IP address of the Web server where I shall host my site. And a web server certainly does not host a single site. So the IP address of the Web server should be the IP address that refers to all the web sites that are hosted in it.
    :
    : So Please would you explain me what really happens. You can also help me by refering to some web site form where I might get some answer.
    :
    : Thak you very much form the deep of my heart for reading this very large message.
    :
    : _____________________________________________________________________________
    : Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->
    :
    :

  • GothmordrinGothmordrin Posts: 10Member
    : Thank You Very Much CyGuy for replying and trying to help me.
    :
    : But it would be very help if you tell me a bit detailse about the topic. What I actually wanna know is what happends after typing an URL in the browser and pressing enter to load the web page.
    :
    : To search the answer I've gone through many books. All of the books told that the URL I m typing is not the real address but it represents an unique IP address for the site, eg. if I type "http://www.yahoo.com" then it resembles may be "221.124.245.120" and if I type the IP in the browser then also the web page will appear.
    :
    : From the books I've come to know that the text URL is for human to make it yasier to remember. From books I've also come to know that after typing the text URL in the browser the browser will contact a DNS servre to find out the IP related to the text URL and after getting the IP it will contact with the web server and lode the page for the server.
    :
    : After all this a question appeared in my mind. If a text URL resembles a dedicated IP that represents the page or text URL, what happends when someone resisters a text URL under a certain domain eg. "www.abcd.com"
    :
    : 1) Does resistering an text URL means that the resistering authority like "internic.com" is assigning both the text URL and a unique IP for the text URL "www.abcd.com" to me?
    :
    : If yes then another question arrives in my mind,
    :
    : 2) How can "internic" assign a unique IP for my text URL? IP's are for PCs that are connected to the net or connected in a network. So IP address of a site should be the IP address of the Web server where I shall host my site. And a web server certainly does not host a single site. So the IP address of the Web server should be the IP address that refers to all the web sites that are hosted in it.
    :
    : So Please would you explain me what really happens. You can also help me by refering to some web site form where I might get some answer.
    :
    : Thak you very much form the deep of my heart for reading this very large message.
    :
    : _____________________________________________________________________________
    : Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->
    :
    : Hi.
    You appear to be labouring under several mis-apprehensions but chiefly you need to have a better understanding on how DNS lookups actually work. If I may ellucidate as briefly as possible;

    Your assumption that your URL maps only into 1 IP address is actually incorrect. Try pinging a URL like www.bbc.co.uk as an example. You will find that the ACTUAL IP address varies with each ping. This is because there are many targets associated with the primary URL "alias".

    DNS lookup is a very complex subject and you really should research it yourself as there's far too much to post in a BB like this, however, each reply to a DNS lookup may be 1 of about 5 different result types. Only 1 of these is an IP lookup. It's more than possible that your alias maps into several listed CANONICAL names any 1 of which may be re-queried by your browser to resolve to a unique IP address.

    Take a look at "http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/index.htm" and either go to the link marked "COURSE" or search for "DNS LOOKUP".

    Be warned my friend that there is a HELLUVVA lot to read!

    Happy learning.

    Gothmordrin
    Think it through first - then pester someone.

  • ranainnetranainnet Posts: 54Member
    Thanks "Gothmordrin" for your reply,

    But I am a commerce student, So it would be a bit difficult to grasp such a critical subject like DNS LOOKUP.

    Would u please let me know in a step by step format about
    1) what actually happends when I type a text URL in my browser.
    2) how can I have my own web address

    And could u please refer me some web addresses form where I would be able to know about Internet banking (how it works, what are the things I should be careful about while transacting money through net, what are the loofalls or risks of the technology etc...)

    My question might seem very elementary, but I failed to get the answers from everybody I know (who have finished studies in Computer science). So I m very frastated. Please help me. I have no other way to get my answers with out the net.

    _____________________________________________________________________________
    Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->

  • GothmordrinGothmordrin Posts: 10Member
    : Thanks "Gothmordrin" for your reply,
    :
    : But I am a commerce student, So it would be a bit difficult to grasp such a critical subject like DNS LOOKUP.
    :
    : Would u please let me know in a step by step format about
    : 1) what actually happends when I type a text URL in my browser.
    : 2) how can I have my own web address
    :
    : And could u please refer me some web addresses form where I would be able to know about Internet banking (how it works, what are the things I should be careful about while transacting money through net, what are the loofalls or risks of the technology etc...)
    :
    : My question might seem very elementary, but I failed to get the answers from everybody I know (who have finished studies in Computer science). So I m very frastated. Please help me. I have no other way to get my answers with out the net.
    :
    : _____________________________________________________________________________
    : Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->
    :
    :I'll give you as much detail as I can in a BB without hogging bandwidth.

    I'll answer 2 first as it's the quickest. To get your own site, contact your ISP or a 3rd party web hosting service and rent some space. You will need a client app like FTP or a publishing client that will allow you to upload your own content. Most ISPs include a few MB in their contract anyway so you may find that you already have some space. You can publish your own domain URL via the hosting party's service page. e.g. Initially your site space will be something like:

    isp-name.root/your-user-name

    You can, however, map this into something like:

    some-site.something-groovey.root

    by creating an alias in the DNS database - usually via your ISP or by contacting a domain-allocating service directly.
    Basically, go into Google and type something like "web hosting" and you'll get zillions of hits.

    Now, I'll tackle (1) in its simplest forms;
    When you type a URL into your browser several things happen in quick succession:

    a) Your browser will convert the address into a unique number (see "cyclic redundancy checksums") and see if a page from this URL is already in your browser cache. If it is and it hasn't aged out your browser will merely use that cached page. If the page isn't already in your cache........

    b) Your browser issues a DNS lookup query (it's a UDP based protocol usually but some aspects of DNS use TCP) which basically says to your DNS server(s) give me everything you know about this URL. The actual DNS lookup itself may well be a hierarchical process where - if the exact entry you want isn't held in your local server - the server will ask other machines further up the line until it gets to the servers directly below the root domain.

    e.g. "www.private-name.sub-domain.root-domain"
    root-domain = The root domain like "com"
    sub-domain = The sub-domain under the root like "co"
    private-name = The advertised name of the service like microsoft"
    www = The "web" domain - in this case

    Now, the "answer" that your browser gets from the DNS server may be one of many types but there are 3 basic types which interest you specifically:

    1) Alias.
    An alias is like a symbolic link or a shortcut in microsoft. It's another name for a base-level domain name or collecion of base names. The base names are NOT IP addresses but more domains which are collected under the alias. These are listed one after the other in a special section of the DNS reply datagram. Your browser may use any of them to continue its search for the IP address.

    2) A canonical name.
    A canonical name is a "base" name for a subsequent value - usually an IP address. Your browser will look for canonical names which translate directly into IP addresses.

    3) An IP address.
    This is the "end result" which your browser needs to access the target page.

    There are actually many more result types you can get in the answer but few if any of the others relate to IP address translation.

    Just to throw a spanner into the works, an alias can translate into more aliases further down the DNS lookup hierarchy and there are 4 sections to a DNS reply.

    1) Query.
    2) Answer.
    3) Additional data.
    4) Authoritative section.

    Our discussion is limited only to 1 and 2, but 3 may well qualify the answer you get in 2.

    As far as documentation on internet banking specifically is concerned, I'm a technologist - not a banker, however, you should be aware that any sensitive traffic (like bank statements and commerce up or down to the server) should be transacted via a secure socket layer. For the HTTP protocol this is done on port 443. All traffic exchanged via an SSL will also require in-line encryption and ought to be "certified" - the exchange of encrypting authority certificate. If you are using SSL the little padlock on your browser's status bar will close showing you are "locked" against interception. If you are accessing a banking site, be absolutely certain that your padlock is locked.

    For further information go into Google and type "secure socket", "Diffie-Helman handshake" or "secure data transfer". You will get squillions of hits for any of them. Use the links you get to obtain further reading material.

    This is DNS in a nutshell. Hope it helps....

    Gothmordrin.
    Think it through first - then pester someone.

  • ranainnetranainnet Posts: 54Member
    Thank You very much "Gothmordrin" For trying to clear my confusions.

    Although I've not understood everything yet and certainly have some more questions, I think your short "nut shell of internet" let me know many things.

    Actually I am afraid of asking more questions, afraid of that further questions would annoy you.

    I m planning to go through some more reading materials by myself and will certainly need your help on the topic (if I don't get much useful information in a form that I can grasp).

    Thank you again and please don't mind if I ask some more questions.


    _____________________________________________________________________________
    Knowledge Is Power. Be Sure To Use This Power For Others WelFare. (;->

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