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what are the Rings in assembly

Gentlemen,
in some documents i am reading i find the mention of
Rings3 and Ring1 in abstract. Ring3 Application and
so forth i think it might be the depth at which one
can reach in the operating system.Is it?
is Ring1 the deepest or the Ring3 and when programming
in assembly are we not always programming At the Lowest
level sort of a sacratch level .from where there is nothing
deepest.
And is there a book to download on Fasm.
and Just one more thing I tries to download
Intel Documentation IA-32 Basic Architecture
but it always is In error is it the same with you
or i am opening a wrong link i want a link
which makes these Processors naked to the core
and gives there secrets opcodes etc.etc..
[code]
Number
IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 1, Basic Architecture 253665
IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 2A, Instruction Set
Reference 253666
IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 2B, Instruction Set
Reference 253667
IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 3, System
Programming Guide 253668
[/code]
these are the links they get downloaded but when i
try to open them
Acrobat reader refuses to do so
but other things it is opening
i have tried many times


thanks

Comments

  • pmcastillopmcastillo Member Posts: 140
    The Manuals are here:

    http://www.intel.com/design/pentium4/manuals/index_new.htm

    The Basic Architecture is here:

    ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/25366517.pdf

    The Instruction Set A is here:

    ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/25366617.pdf

    The Instruction Set B is here:

    ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/25366717.pdf

    The System Programming is here:

    ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/25366817.pdf

    What errors you got? In download or viewing?
    If the Acrobat Reader is the cause, try this:

    http://www.foxitsoftware.com/pdf/rd_intro.php

    The Foxit Reader

    It's quite small, fast and simple...
  • shaolin007shaolin007 Member Posts: 1,018
    : Gentlemen,
    : in some documents i am reading i find the mention of
    : Rings3 and Ring1 in abstract. Ring3 Application and
    : so forth i think it might be the depth at which one
    : can reach in the operating system.Is it?
    : is Ring1 the deepest or the Ring3 and when programming
    : in assembly are we not always programming At the Lowest
    : level sort of a sacratch level .from where there is nothing
    : deepest.
    [green]
    In a protected mode OS like Windows on a x86 cpu, there are rings to which a program can run in that either gives complete control, limited control, or no control over hardware and other programs. Ring 0 is the most priviliged level which the OS internals operate in, i.e. kernel. The higher rings like ring 2 and 3 are for application level programs. There are 4 rings in total. The "IA-32 Intel Architecture
    Software Developer's Manual Vol ume 3 :System Programming Guide" has more info on it I believe. I only have a rudimentary knowledge of it, sorry.
    [/green]



    : And is there a book to download on Fasm.
    : and Just one more thing I tries to download
    : Intel Documentation IA-32 Basic Architecture
    : but it always is In error is it the same with you
    : or i am opening a wrong link i want a link
    : which makes these Processors naked to the core
    : and gives there secrets opcodes etc.etc..
    : [code]
    [green]
    There is a help section on FASM's website that gives details on how to use FASM.

    http://www.intel.com/design/pentium4/manuals/index_new.htm#1

    try this link.
    [/green]





    : Number
    : IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 1, Basic Architecture 253665
    : IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 2A, Instruction Set
    : Reference 253666
    : IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 2B, Instruction Set
    : Reference 253667
    : IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developers Manual: Volume 3, System
    : Programming Guide 253668
    : [/code]
    : these are the links they get downloaded but when i
    : try to open them
    : Acrobat reader refuses to do so
    : but other things it is opening
    : i have tried many times
    :
    :
    : thanks
    :

  • RIGHT_THENRIGHT_THEN Member Posts: 154
    Sir Mr.pmcastillo And Sir Mr.shaolin

    Thankyou Gentlemen For your Consideration
    you have been kind
    i will try the links then

    And Mr.pmcastillo
    the problem is in opening the documents with
    acrobat reader but only with those documents
    i mentioned.other documents open good enough
    but yes i will try the fox you recommended


    Thanks :-)



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